Rules Of The List

1. All combatants shall be on their best and most chivalrous behavior. They shall be charitable with the assumptions of their opponents and fight for honor and comradery above victory. They shall not be base, common, and churlish of act in a manner villainous.
2. None may be compelled to compete at arms against their will or conscience. And none shall think evil of it should one decline to test themselves for any reason nor shall explanation be required.
3. All those testing their skill at arms may only use weapons and arms approved by the marshalate and bear no weapon of sharp edge that might draw blood or wound grievous on their honored foe. Weapons shall be used only in the manner of their design. A marshal may remove any weapon they feel may pose a threat to the safety of combatants.
4. A Marshal of the field my remove any combatant they deem dangerous to themselves or others at any time. Or a combatant that behaves in a manner unbecoming Chivalry, toward the assembled masses, gallery or their honorable opponent.
5. Unless otherwise agreed upon only melee weapons may be brought into the list. Brawling with the limbs and fists is not allowed, and no strike may be delivered with the hand foot or other part of the body.
6. All combatants acting according to their own will assume that they may be stuck and injured in combat and the exercise of arms , they shall be responsible and assume unto themselves all risk and liability for harm suffered by means of such combat. They shall honor their opponent with their greatest effort and most noble behavior.
7. None shall engage in combat unless and until their arms and armor has been inspected by a official of the field of combat and satisfied that the equipment appears to meet the requirements for combat.
8. None may test themselves upon the field of combat if they are impaired by alcohol, strong drink, or substances of illicit nature, or prescription medication that have deleterious effect in judgment or the ability to feel pain or otherwise alter the fighter in question as to be a danger to themselves or others. To do so poses a danger to all.

Conventions of Combat

1. All traditional armored combat at tourneys, wars, and other events shall be conducted in accordance with these rules of the lists , these conventions of Combat, and such arms and armor as outlined in weapons and armor requirements.
2. All fighters, prior to combat at each and every event or fighting practice, shall ensure that their armor and weapons are inspected and found to be acceptable by the marshal. The combatant shall still accept full responsibility for the conditions of their arms and armor and assume the responsibility of their own safety.
3. Behavior on the Field
  1. Striking an opponent with excessive force is forbidden.
  2. All combatants shall obey the orders of the marshals on the field. If combatants do not obey they shall be removed from the field and subject to disciplinary action.
  3. Each combatant shall maintain control over their anger or frustration and are expected to act like adults of reason and noble bearing.
  4. Upon hearing the call of “HOLD” all fighting shall IMMEDIATELY stop. Combatants shall freeze in place and only move to protect themselves or another from injury.
  5. Harsh disparaging or disrespectful language personal insults and degradation are unchivalrous, and will not be allowed upon the field. Disputes shall be resolved with civility through the marshal, and like persons of honor.
4. A combatant shall not deliberately strike a helpless foe, ever.
5. Conversely, any combatant who seeks unfair advantage by repeatedly feigning helplessness after being duly warned by the marshal, may be forced to yield the fight at the next occurrence, or removed from the field for unchivalrous behavior.
6. Grappling, tripping, throwing, biting, eye gouging, striking with the hands or feet, or otherwise fighting with implement other than the agreed upon arms of contest, are prohibited.
7. A combatant who deliberately strikes a foe’s head, limbs, or body with a shield edge, with intent to cause injury or the weapon haft, or any part of the body is forbidden. The striking surface of a weapon shall be the only section used and any blow delivered upon the body by an illegitimate striking surface shall also be ignored. As well as striking deliberately in a forbidden target area is expressly not allowed.
8. Grabbing with the hand a foe’s, shield, weapon’s striking surface, or bow/crossbow is likewise forbidden.

The Regulation Of Arms And Armor


1. Bastons for the list shall be of rattan and shall be greater than 1 inch and one quarter in the entirety of their striking edge.
  1. They may have a stabbing tip of the same diameter as the blade 1 1/4 inches, and a progressive resistance of ½ inch it shall be secured soundly to the weapon by tape or other means that will not injure an opponent.
  2. Single handed weapons not designed to be used as a backup shall have a lanyard or other device designed to secure the weapon to the hand of the user.
  3. Quillions, pommels and basket hilts alone may be allowed to be material other than rattan and these areas shall never be used for striking.
  4. None shall wield a punch knife. Fails are not yell allowed.
  5. No single handed weapon may have a thrusting tip on both ends now may they have one upon the pommel of a sword.
2. The striking edge shall be clearly marked upon all weapons bearing an edge.
  1. Maces, hammers, and bludgeons need not mark edges, but should have the face made for war and striking clearly marked. This includes weapons of two handed varaties. Weapons of less than 38 inches may not exceed 3 lbs.
  2. The edges may be marked with tape (excluding aluminum tape) that is of simple solid colors. Duct tape, hockey tape gaffer tape are all acceptable as is the use of raw hide to cover the striking area of the weapon. NO modern print tape logo or pattern shall be allowed on weapons. No flames, no cartoon characters, no modern patterns of any kind. Solid colors only or the weapon fails. The colors should contrast as to mark the egde clearly. Gray and black contrast well, red and blue. Green and white for ex, yellow and orange might be a less contrasting combo for example.
3. Poll axes, glaives, partisans, halberds shall all mark clearly the striking face and blade edges.
  1. They shall be greater than 5 feet 10 and less than 7 feet and shall be made to wield with 2 hands.
  2. They shall have stabbing tips of 2 inches and a progressive give of that tip of 1/2 inch. it shall be secured soundly to the weapon by tape or other means that will not injure an opponent.
  3. Weapons used in 2 hands may have a butt spike as well as the cutting head. The haft as well as the blade shall not be able to pass through the eye slot of a helm. They too shall be constructed of rattan cane.
  4. Lanyards are not required on weapons justly wielded with 2 hands. Polearms may contain blades constructed of split rattan, so long as the pieces are securely fastened to the haft.
  5. The weapon shall not be excessively flexible.
  6. The head shall be firmly and securely attached to the haft. The head shall allow at least 1/2 inch of progressive give between the striking surface and the weapon haft.
  7. Semi-rigid ultra-lightweight shaped foam heads and laminated or split rattan construction techniques do not require 1/2 inch of progressive give,so long as their construction imparts striking characteristics similar to an unpadded weapon constructed of a single piece of rattan.
  8. A pole arm from a single piece of rattan must have a clearly marked edged. No weapons shall have a shovel style handle .They may not have 2 striking heads.
4. Pikes and cut lances for the haslitude on foot may be between 7 and 9 feet, and shall not exceed 9 feet.
  1. Spears may have a stabbing tip of 2 inches and progressive give of ½ inch.
  2. They MAY NOT be used for the haft to strike and as such the haft may be of hard wood or the fiberglass. Striking with the head in the manner of a slash is forbidden.
  3. No smashing or cutting head may be upon a spear or pike.
  4. The butt end of the shaft shall be smooth and free of cracks or frayed fibers. The butt shall be taped over or otherwise sealed. Fiberglass spears shall be constructed with pultruded fiberglass shafts with an outside diameter of no less than 1 1/4 inch and no greater than 1 5/16 inch.
  5. Minimum manufacturer specified wall thickness shall be 1/8 inch and the minimum measurable wall thickness shall be 3/32 inch.
  6. The end of the shaft which will have the thrusting tip attached must be covered with a schedule-40 PVC cap with an interior diameter the same as the outside diameter of the shaft 1 1/4 inches.
  7. The thrusting tip will then be attached over this cap.
5. Except for the hilts, guards and pommels, no metal or non-approved rigid, granular, or liquid material may be used in the construction of single or two-handed weapons No part of a weapon shall have sharp edges or protrusions with cross-section of less than 1 1/4-inch in diameter. Guards, pommels, hooks, etc., shall be firmly and securely affixed to the weapon haft.

Bows And Archery Combat Archery Bows/Crossbows

1. During inspection, all equipment must have its poundage and draw physically measured with a ruler or other metered device and poundage scale.
2. Marshals must calibrate their bow scales regularly to be accurate at either 35 measurements obtained with commonly used, standard spring-type scales can vary over time.
3. No compound bows, nor compound crossbow prods are allowed.
4. No non-period sights, spring/flipper rests, plunger buttons, stabilizers, clickers, or modern string release aids may be used.
5. Bows/Crossbows must be powered solely by the flex of the limbs.
6. If both Light and Heavy bows/crossbows, by the standards as defined below, are on the field at the same time, then all Heavy bows/crossbows must have their upper limb (or one limb for crossbows) covered with at least 4 inches (10 cm) of red material (tape, cloth, etc.).
7. Handbows
  1. A handbow’s power is measured at 28 inches (71 cm). If the bow is not designed to be drawn at 28 inches (71 cm), then it cannot be used in SCA combat.
  2. Light handbows measure 35 pounds (15.9 kg) or less at 28 inches (71 cm).
  3. Heavy handbows measure 50 pounds (22.7 kg) or less at 28 inches (71 cm).
8. Crossbows
  1. Crossbows are measured by inch-pounds (”#), which is calculated by taking the poundage of the bow measured at the lock, multiplied by the distance (in inches) from the front of the string at rest, to the front of the string when in cocked position. A metric measurement of kilogram-centimeters (kg-cm).
  2. Light crossbows measure 600”# (691 kg-cm) or less.
  3. Heavy crossbows measure 1000”# (1152 kg-cm) or less.
  4. No crossbows may have a modern pistol grip.
9. Combat Archery Ammunition
  1. All ammunition must have the owner’s name (not initials) displayed clearly on it.
  2. No metal can be used as ammunition construction material.
  3. All ammunition has a maximum length of 28 inches (71 cm) from the back of the head/blunt, to the string acceptor on the nock.
  4. Optionally, ammunition may have fletches as long as they are securely attached and made of a soft material. Fletches may not project farther than .5 inch (12.7 mm) from the shaft if they are less than 1.5 inch (38.1 mm) thick.
  5. Light Ammunition (for use in light bows or light crossbows only) must consist of a fiberglass shaft, a blunt (either commercially manufactured or UHMW) and an APD(either commercially manufactured or HDPE).
10. Fiberglass Ammunition Shafts
  1. Solid pultruded fiberglass of between .25 (6.5 mm) and .375 inch (9.5 mm) diameter.
  2. Fiberglass shall be of a good quality, defined as significant ‘bending’ pressure as applied by a marshal not causing the shaft to break.
  3. The shaft must be covered from behind the blunt, to the front of the knock in a sturdy tear-resistant tape, such as strapping, electrical, or duct tape.
6. Commercially Manufactured Blunts
  1. Allowed commercial blunts: Baldar, Fathead, and Fathead 2 only.
  2. All other designs or manufacturing techniques must be approved in writing by the Society Marshal's office.
  3. Must be of a type designed for use on fiberglass shafts (.25 inch shaft acceptor), and can only be used with .25 inch or 6.5 mm shafts.
  4. Commercial blunts may have no additional modifications.
  5. Baldar only rules: Only the original 2-piece mold Baldar Blunt is approved. Blunts must be attached in such a way that at least 50% of the blunt is visible and can be inspected (the parting line visible around the circumference of the thickest part of the blunt in the 2- piece molds). If no parting line is seen the blunt cannot be used. There should be no delamination along the parting line. This will be tested by Marshals by attempting to insert a fingernail with light force into the parting line. If the fingernail can penetrate the blunt, then it fails.

How One May Fell A Combat Archer

1. Combat archers must take the field in at least the minimal safety armor required for all other fighters, they may wear and archers gauntlet or demi upon their bow string hand and may carry a back up weapon to defend themselves as well if they wish to engage in combat beyond archery.
2. Archers may not loose an arrow inside the range that the arrow must have to clear the bow. This is a danger TO THE ARCHER from bounce back as well as the melee combatant.
3. Inside 10 feet an Archer may choose to surrender to a melee combatant. IF they choose to they must take a knee and raise the bow over they head in their fully gauntleted hand and LOUDLY yell “YEILD” over and over. After the melee combatant leaves the area weather the melee combatant acknowledges them or not. After fighting has moved past the archer that has yielded, they can rise with bow over their head indicating that they are no longer in combat and return to the out of bounds side of their forces. IF an archer takes a knee or otherwise indicates that they have yielded and attempts to return to combat in bad faith, they will be pulled from the field by a marshal. Conversely melee fighters shall not strike an archer attempting to yield or that has taken a knee and held the bow aloft. They too shall be pulled from the field by a marshal. IF ARCHERS DO NOT WISH TO BE STRUCK THEY SHOULD YEILD. Melee combatants MUST ACCEPT THE ATTEMPT TO YEILD by a combat archer.
4. IF an archer continues to attempt to knoch arrows, or loose arrows while being closed with by a melee combatant within 10 feet they should expect to be struck with normal force as a melee combatant.
5. Arrows MAY NOT be knocked during a hold if the archer has fired. Archers reloading during the hold may be pulled from the field by a marshal.
6. Melee combatants shall not strike the bow or arrows in an attempt to break the weapons, Nor shall they strike archers with force in a manner that is excessive or unchivalrous.
6. IF an archer exhausts the carried ammunition, they may leave the field to divest themselves of a hand bow and retrieve or draw a melee weapon. Cross bows may be slung if possible and melee weapons drawn.

Thrown Weapons Throwing Weapons

1. Weapons shall be allowed that are to be used for striking and may also be thrown by the hand. Such weapons as javelins, axes, knives, hurl bats, shuriken, etc.
  1. Shafts shall be constructed of rattan not less than 1.25 inch (31.8 mm) in diameter along its entire length or of two layers of Siloflex or equivalent.
  2. The outer layer shall be 1 inch (25.4 mm) inner diameter Siloflex (1.25 inch [31.8mm] outer diameter) and the inner layer shall be 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) inner diameter Siloflex.
  3. All Siloflex used or throwing weapons must have a pressure rating of 160 PSI or greater.
  4. If Siloflex is used, both ends of the shaft shall be covered with either a schedule-40 PVC cap with an interior diameter the same as the outside diameter of the shaft (1.25 inches [31.8 mm]), or with a rubber stopper or equivalent means to prevent the tubing from penetrating the thrusting tip(s), fastened securely in place by tape and/or glue.
2. There shall be NO MADUS for they are affront to all just deities and the ancestors of man. Thor St Michael, Hector of Troy and the other worthies, and Mars himself; weep when they are used and plague and pestilence follow the practitioners of the way of the madu. The madu is defined in it’s vilness as a short spear with 2 striking ends used as a ridged parry device most often fitted with a small buckler or a shield boss. A spear with a single point held in the guantled hand shall be fine, but the madu and weapons of similar design are banned imperpituity under penalty or walk of shame and removal from Santa’s gift list, and the offender’s birthday shall no longer be celebrated. No weapons shall have a cutting or striking surface at both ends.


1. Helms shall be of 16 gauge at the barest minimum. .0625 (that is, 1/16) inch (1.6 mm) These helmets should be known to the wearer to be in need of replacement often. The helm shall cover from below the chin and cover the base of the skull, it shall be well padded and not make contact with the face within when struck. No opening shall exceed one inch in a justly built helm. It should be in good repair and have upon it no cracks or rust that may hide the failure of steel from age or mighty blows received. It shall be padded with ½ inch of close cell foam or equivalent.
  1. Alternative materials, such as stainless steel, brass, bronze, or like materials, are permissible if the material is structurally equivalent to 0.0625-inch-thick steel. The mass of the helm is an important part of the protection. As such, no titanium, fiberglass, aluminum, or other ultra-light materials may be used unless they meet the equivalent mass, strength, and weight of steel which has a thickness of no less than .0625 (that is, 1/16) inch (1.6 mm).
    1. Proof of construction technique, materials, and equivalency must be provided to the Earl Marshal for an approval for use. If a spun metal top is to be used in the construction of the helm, it shall be a minimum of 0.075-inch (14-gauge or 1.905 mm) steel. The process of spinning the top thins the metal, thereby requiring a heavier gauge.
  2. All joints or seams shall be constructed in one or a combination of the following ways, with all welds sound and rivets secure:
    1. Welded on the inside and outside.
    2. Welded with a single bead that extends through both surfaces.
    3. Lap joints welded or brazed at the edges of both pieces.
    4. Helms will be riveted with iron or steel rivets no more than 2 ½ inches apart, or with equivalent riveting techniques. Screw- and pop-type rivets, along with other lightweight rivets, are expressly forbidden.
2. Bars used in the face guard shall be steel of not less than .1875 (that is, 3/16) inch (4.8 mm) in diameter, or equivalent. If the span between crossbars is less than 2 inches (50.8 mm), .125 (that is, 1/8) inch (3.18 mm) diameter bars may be used. These shall be used to simulate areas of a helm with no physical protection.
3. All movable visors shall be attached and secured in such a way that there is minimal chance that they will become detached or come open in normal combat use.
4. There shall be NO major internal projections; minor projections of necessary structural components shall be padded. All metal shall be free of sharp edges. Face guard bars or mesh should not attach to the interior of the helm, unless of structurally superior design and workmanship.
5. All parts of the helm that might cause injurious contact with the wearer’s head shall be padded with a minimum of 1/2 inch of closed-cell foam or equivalent padding or shall be suspended in such a way as to prevent contact with the wearer during combat. Similarly, parts of the inside of the helm that may come in contact with the wearer’s neck or body should be padded.
6. All helms shall be equipped with a chin strap or equivalent means to prevent the helm from being dislodged or metal contacting the wearer’s face during combat. An equivalent might be, for example, a bevor or a chin-cup suspension system. A “snug fit” is NOT an equivalent. The chin strap shall be, at a minimum, 1/2 inch in width and shall not be placed in the helm in a manner that could strangle the wearer.
7. Ridged material shall be defined as 11 ounce leather hardened by water or wax, and padded, mild steel, stainless steel, spring or high carbon steel or other such material which prevents the armor from flexing when stuck and aids in the mitigation of the impact from a blow. If the material may be moved easily with the bear hand it is NOT ridged, even if it springs back. This should be especially checked with polymer based armors.
8. The throat shall be armored by a standard of ridged mail, hardened leather, steel or other ridged material with padding to prevent the crushing of the trachea and spine. An aventail of sufficient density and depth that no blow may contact the throat is an acceptable substitute. The neck, including the larynx, cervical vertebrae, and first thoracic vertebra must be covered by one or a combination of the following and must stay covered during typical combat situations, including turning the head, lifting the chin, etc.:
  1. The helm
  2. A gorget of rigid material
  3. A mail or heavy leather camail or aventail that hangs or drapes to absorb the force of a blow.
    • If the camail or aventail lays in contact with the larynx, cervical vertebrae, or first thoracic vertebra, that section must be padded with a minimum of 1/4 inch of closed cell foam or equivalent.
  4. A collar of heavy leather lined with a minimum of 1/4 inch of close cell foam or equivalent.
9. The hands shall be shod in gauntlets, ridged material the equivalent of 16 ga steel, and either lined with 1/4 inch of closed-cell foam shall protect the hands and fingers including to 1 inch above the wrist. A gauntlet of heavy leather lined with 1/2 inch of closed-cell foam This shall cover the entire hand metacarpal thumb and fingers and the wrist, in ridged material with padding where the gauntlet makes direct contact with the hand. Fingered gauntlets are allowed if they cover the exposed areas of the hand when closed on the weapon. They are not required to ground out on the weapons. This shall also include a half gauntlet and a basket hilt that overlap as to mimic the coverage of a gauntlet upon the hand. The half gauntlet shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of a full gauntlet. A shield alone is NOT sufficient, since it covers the back of the hand, but not the fingers, thumb, or wrist. A shield alone may be considered an equivalent to full hand protection only if no part of the hand or wrist is within 4 inches of the edge of the shield while the shield is in use. This definition is meant to allow the use of center gripped shields using an umbo or boss NOT a bare or gloved hand to grip open in a strapped shield.
In additions equivalent shall be:
  1. A rigid basket or cup hilt with enough bars or plates to prevent a blow from striking the fingers or the back of the hand.
  2. If a basket or cup hilt, shield basket, or center-grip shield is used, a vambrace and or partial gauntlet shall cover the remaining exposed portions of the hand and wrist.
10. The elbows and knees shall have a covering upon them of ridged material that does not flex inward and it shall be padded by ¼ inch of padding or equivalent.
  1. The elbow point and bones at either side of the elbow joint must be covered. Joint armor shall be attached in such a way that the elbow remains covered during combat.
  2. The kneecap, including the area one inch above and below it, and both sides of the knee joints, must be covered by rigid material, lined by at least 1/4 inch of closed-cell foam or an equivalent padding.
11. The shins ARE HIGHLY RECOMMENDED to be protected by at minimum stout padding or heavy boots as they may be struck, greaves of steel, leather, iron or that which protects in such fashion is greatly recommended. Bare legs are not allowed upon the field.
12. The groin shall be armored to protect from impact in accordance with the anatomy required by the wearer. The cup or pubic protector, shall be secured by straps, or worn in a supporter or fighting garment designed to hold the protection in place.
13. The Torso. The kidney area and the floating ribs shall be covered with a minimum of heavy leather worn over 1/4 inch of closed-cell foam or equivalent padding. Separate breast cups are prohibited unless connected by or mounted on an interconnecting rigid piece, for example, a heavy leather or metal breastplate.
14. The feet shall be covered in close-toed shoes, and shall not be bare upon the field Visibly modern athletic shoes and not allowed unless disguised as to be unrecognizable.
15. All combatants must be clothed to legal requirements of modesty in addition to their armor. Clothing of the designs of the modern era shall not be worn in a manner that may be viewed by an opponent. Modern clothing and logos should be concealed COMPLETELY. Including jeans printed t shirts, modern logos, modern sports teams etc.
16. Armor may be repaired as needed, these repairs may be affected as time allows upon the field. BUT armor may be failed if it appears a piece of armor is secured or constructed primarily of tape, zip ties or other such temporary fixes or is otherwise shoddy and prone to failure.
17. Eye Wear worn for medical reason. The lenses of all eyewear shall be constructed of shatterproof industrial safety glass or plastic. Ordinary glass lenses are prohibited. The wearing of contact lenses or “sports glasses” is strongly recommended.
18. Shields shall be edged with leather, padding, or other covering or constructed in such a way as to minimize damage to rattan weapons or other fighters.
  1. No bolts, wires, or other objects may project more than 3/8 inch from any part of a shield without being padded.
  2. Rounded shield bosses are not considered to be projections
  3. Modern markings shall be covered completely for ex road signs. Any mundane marking must be painted completely, bare aluminum should be painted as well.
19. NO armor may be made of _exposed_ materials of modern alchemy, not of our ancestors, such as kydex, barrel plastic, Kevlar, Lexan or other polymer based armors shall be exposed in a way that allow them to be visible by the opponent. Exceptions to this shall alone be armor made of polymer that is cosmetically made to resemble metal or period material in its construction. This shall include lamellar plates made to resemble metal, polyethylene armors and similar made as durable props that look to be metal, and armor recreating the lacquered armors of period Japan. This shall also be the case for modern arming garments worn for comfort such as zoom band or under armor brand these modern garments must be concealed completely. This includes modern logos or symbols. With the exception of medical necessity. Appearance and the atmosphere of an event of the middle Ages should be maintained upon the field.
20. Expressly banned from the field, modern jeans or cargo pants, modern military camouflage clothing. Visibly modern footwear. Low profile shoes such as military or tactical boots, work boots riding boots are non-glaring and not jarring to the eye and are allowed. Modern athletic shoes are banned as they are obviously modern and detract from the appearance on the field. IF they can be completely covered as to not see them at all with a sabaton, or otherwise reworked to resemble a medieval shoe then they can be considered. Clothing sporting modern logos or copy righted characters, sports team logos, or modern symbols must be at minimum covered at all times (such as certain spandex type underclothes) other items such as jerseys and printed t shirts should not be worn on the field. A fighter wearing banned items may be failed at armor inspection.


Where And How Blows May Be Justly Struck

1. Upon the body combatants shall be prepared to receive stout and telling blows upon their person. Striking with excessive force, intending to do true harm, or out of wrath or base intent is forbidden.
2. To throw blows that are without force is to imply frailty or weakness of your opponent, and is a slight and great insult, just as to strike with true anger and intent to injure is wrathful and unchivalrous without great cause. Strike with great love and honor of your opponent so that they may love thy honor in the contest, as well and honor your effort with their own. Blows should be crisp and unpleasant to feel so that combatants may be reminded of their failure to block and the mortality or their flesh. These blows shall be delivered stoutly and with vigorous intent, they should be unimpeded and delivered with the marked edge, and only about the body where agreed upon in the conventions of combat. And ONLY as the edged or sharpened analog is designed.
3. Those who seek to test themselves at arms should forsake completely the striking of the feet, and the hands. These forsaken blows shall begin 2 inches above the ankle and 2 inches above the wrist.
4. They should take care to strike not the groin or cervical vertebrae on purpose with great force, though should the groin or vertebrae be struck these blows shall be counted if they are delivered with agreed upon force.
5. The rest of the body shall not be spared, and all blows landed justly shall be counted.
6. Those that wear a helm of open face may be stuck with the thrust in the opening of the helm. Those that wear a visored helm, hume or otherwise visor of closed steel, shall only count the thrust where the true gaps of flesh may be stuck.
7. Blows may ONLY be stuck with arms approved, not with the fists feet limbs or head. One combatant may not grasp or grab the body of the other.


1. All judgment of the acceptability of a blow delivered is left to the honor of the combatant being receiving the blow. With the only exception being a contest where the combatants have mutually agreed or recognized alternative rules. It is physically impossible to judge in most cases the effectiveness of a blow by the opposing combatant, a marshal, or observers. All combatants will be on their honor to judge blows in accordance with the culture and agreed upon level of force of the field they fight upon. Perspective and advice of the marshal may be supplied to the combatant being struck may be or by the opposing. This shall include blade orientation upon impact, apparent force transmitted, or apparent location and angle of the blow’s if requested by the combatants.
2. When judging the effect of blows, all fighters are presumed to be wearing only the medieval armor they are portraying with period approximate analogs. Modern safety equipment, such as modern padding or hidden armor worn to accommodate rules shall have no effect on the armor as it is worn.
  1. Under this standard, an acceptable thrusted blow to the unarmored face would be lighter than to other portions of the head or body. Areas deemed illegal to strike (the wrists from 1inch [25.4mm] above the hands; the legs from 2 inch [25.4mm] above the ankles and below the ankle shall be considered safe from all attack.
  2. The face defined as the opening or simulated openings such as a bar grill that simulate the open portions of the helmet. Areas covering the face that are solid contiguous metal that would not provide room for striking with a blade with ease are to be treated as closed and blows acknowledged in the same fashion as the rest of the helmet.
  3. The minimum effective thrusting blow to the face, shall be a directed touch and the maximum shall be substantially lighter than to other parts of the body. The blow should be enough to jostle the helmet but not unduly risk injury to the face of the wearer by it bottoming out against the face. Combatants shall wear a fitting helmet and secure chinstrap to mitigate this possibility. A thrust or an arrow strike to the simulated open area of the helmet shall be counted as immediately debilitating and the fighter receiving the thrust to the simulated open face shall be considered immediately defeated.
3. The number of blows required to fell an opponent shall reflect and honor the effort placed into historical kit and it’s actual protection, the era of the armor shall be irrelevant, the coverage and material shall be of consideration. The number of blows shall vary with the kit to simulate the armor as worn. The minimum number of the count shall be 1 the maximum number received shall be 5.
  1. Definitions: To more accurately simulate the armor actually worn we shall define armor regardless or era, into two categories as to mitigate the progression of technology through the period and reward the effort and difficulty of the wear and use of more complete kits from every era. This shall be done to discourage the wearing or modern sport kits, and the wearing of no kit for rules based advantages in a modern fashion. Armor was worn because it actually worked in every era, those that bear the weight of their kit should get the benefit of it thus encouraging armor to be worn in _ARMORED_ combat. Just as those in kits of less encumbrance get the benefits of speed and movement and less fatigue, those in more armor are granted similar protection to what is actually experienced. It should also be encouraged, to keep kits in a single consistent period of use as the design and technology of different cultures and eras is not necessarily effective or efficient.
  2. The types of armors shall be separated in to metal and non metal to give the widest possible range of personas covered. Modern sports equipment worn for padding or comfort is not counted at all.
  3. Non-metal armors: armor that is generally made to flex, or be light and is not primarily made of metal. This includes: fabric cote armors, gambesons, Akentons, cotuns of deerhide, leather armors hardened by wax or water such as that for medieval bohurd fights. This includes modern polymer based armors MUST be disguised as to not be visible at all as modern material. They will ALWAYS be counted as non-metal armor no matter their appearance. This excludes metal armors including but not limited t: lamellar, metal lorcia segmentata, coats of plates, mail, plate armors. Brigandine and splinted armors. Simply adding rivits or similar small bits of metal does not make a non-metal armor change classification.
  4. Metal armors: armor made of bronze, iron, steel or metals of the world of men. This shall include but is not limited to: Mail, scales, lamellar, coats of plates, brigandine, cuirass, roman lorcia, or brest plate. No matter the era or style this is also in no way reflecting the literal weight of the armor.
  5. Body armor: armor that covers the torso at least covering the chest from below the collar bone to the natural wasit and the floating ribs and kidneys. This definition shall apply to both metal and non metal armor. This excludes modern sports equipment worn for comfort or padding. Kidney belts are minimal accepted armor and not counted past the minimal single blow. But with just a kidney belt and supplemental limb armor the count can be increased beyond the minimal.
  6. Partial limb coverage: This shall be a piece of armor that covers only the half of the limb above or below the joint. Joints are required to be covered at minimum at are not part of the consideration. Items which fall into partial coverage: A vambrace or bracer that coves only the lower arm is partial coverage, a spaluder that covers only from the shoulder junction to the triceps would be partial, a rebrace that covers from the deltoid to the bottom of the triceps alone would be partial. A cuiess that covers only the thigh, would be considered partial, a greave that covers only the lower leg would be partial.
  7. Complete limb coverage: Any combination of 2 kinds of coverage on the same limb, and at least 2 limbs being covered in such a way shall count as complete coverage. So greaves on each leg and a vambrace with a mail sleeve that reaches the elbow for ex would count as full limb coverage. As would similar coverage from lamellar or plates. If there is a combination of metal and nonmetal armors, default to the heavier rating and the higher count. For ex if a fighter wears leather greaves and vambraces and wears a full mail shirt which covers the thighs and the arms to the elbow, which shall be counted as full coverage and metal. Error on a higher count if there is any legitimate question. It need not literally cover the whole arm, just cover most of both halves above an below, error on the side of rewarding effort to wear kit.
  8. Fully encased: Within the kit presented, are all limbs covered both sections above and below the joint, is the body armor covered to the standard. IF those are met are all other areas covered as well? The pelvic area? The shoulders? IF those areas are covered in one or both types of kit then the fighter is fully encased. The highest count should be reserved for truly fully armored personnel.
    1. One wearing _minimal_ kit as defined in the armor standards, shall be felled with 1 blow, as for the purposes of calling blows this combatant wears only a helmet, and in otherwise unarmored as if they were a commoner. They may test themselves at the hazard and enjoy the hospitality of the field, but the lack of kit shall not impart advantage other than actual benefit found in the speed of encumbrance.
    2. One wearing limited non-metal substantially covering the torso alone, or armoring the majority of the limbs, but lacking armor on the torso, shall be given 2 blows. Or a combatant that has donned with the minimum plus a gambeson, cotun, doublet, akenton or similar garment of stout fabric in addition to the minimal kit shall be granted a 2nd blow.
    3. One wearing metal armor covering the torso alone shall be given 3 blows.
    4. One partially covering the limbs and body with non-metal armor shall be given 3 blows.
    5. One wearing metal armors partially covering the limbs and the body or a combination of metal and non-metal covering the same areas, shall be given 4 blows.
    6. One covering virtually the whole body fully encased with non-metal armors, shall be given 4 blows.
    7. One covering virtually the whole body, where the body and limbs, torso, hips and shoulders are fully or near fully, encased with metal armor shall be granted 5 blows until they are felled.
    8. Modern equipment may be worn for comfort or add protection but shall not be acknowledged in the armor count.
    9. Items of modern padding or for safety shall not be counted for the purposes of determining the count. This shall include padded undergarments, cups, and gear of modern sporting equipment worn for comfort or impact mitigation.
4. If there is contention or a combatant is on the edge of being able to gain the addition of as blow error toward the awarding of a blow, up until the awarding of a 5th blow to be received. The 5th blow must be for a truly near complete coverage. Most kits will likely fall into a 3 or a 4.
5. Armor of alchemy made of the blood of the Earth and it’s oils shall be disguise completely and covered as to not be detectable by sight. It shall be counted as nonmetal for the count of blows to be received. If it can be seen or visually recognized as being made of polymer or of the armor of modern sport it shall not be counted in the receipt of blows. Obviously modern armor of polymers that is undisguised and sports equipment worn in the same un hidden fashion shall not pass inspection at events, but can be worn at practices. The exception being plastic armor color molded, colored painted and shaped to appear as a more period material, armor simulating lacquered Japanese armors. Injection molded lamellar plates, and polyethelene costume armors made to look like metals. Polymer armor must otherwise be completely hidden.
6. In melee, arrow hits shall be counted as a good blow as if they were a blow struck by a weapon. If struck in the simulated open areas of the face they shall be an immediate besting blow.
7. IF there is an alternative combat format created for an individual list that does not breech the safety rules and combatants agree to the format then supplemental formats with the approval of the marshalate are allowed.
8. The number of blows (1-5) required to fell the fighter in the kit they are wearing shall be decided upon completion of the safety inspection part of armor inspection and the kit shall with the aforementioned guidelines be assigned the number of blows to be required. As many fighters change pieces of kit and may have harness and armor for multiple kits the assignment is for the kit worn at that time in that configuration, it goes to represent the armor worn at that inspection, not the person wearing it.
9. An effective blow will be defined as blows delivered stoutly and with vigorous intent, they should be unimpeded and delivered with the marked edge, and only about the body where agreed upon in the conventions of combat. WEAPONS SHALL BE USED ONLY as the edged or sharpened analog is designed. Should a blow be delivered and the combatant delivering the blow be unable to maintain control of the weapon, resulting in the weapon being dropped the blow need not be taken.
10. Changes to blow acknowledgment standards may be made on a per-combat, per-scenario, or per-tournament basis, but thereafter will revert to the standards above. Alternate acknowledgment standards do not alter the allowed target areas, nor do they increase the basic force level for a telling blow. All combatants must be informed of any changes to standard blow acknowledgment before they participate in the combat.
11. When judging the outcome of a delivered blow, all fighters are expected to take into account the nature of the weapon being used by their opponent and the location of the point of impact of that weapon. A blow that strikes with sufficient force and proper orientation shall be considered effective, regardless of what it hits prior to striking the combatant.
12. Sometimes a blow that would normally be accepted occurs at almost the same moment as an event that would cause the fight to be stopped (a “HOLD” being called, the killing of the fighter throwing the blow, etc.). If the blow was begun before the occurrence of the event that would cause the bout to be halted, and if of sufficient force, it shall be deemed a legal blow and acceptable. If the blow was begun after the occurrence of the event that would cause the bout to be halted, it shall be deemed not legal and need not be accepted.
13. A blow that includes the dropping of a weapon at the moment of impact need not be counted.
14. Combat and the striking of blows shall continue without stoppage until one of the combatants has been struck to the sufficient number. The exception being if a hold is called. Combinations of blows may be struck in succession and combat shall not be stopped or reset after each count is landed unless for a safety concern, in such case a hold shall be called and relative position reestablished before the lay one.

Armor Construction Regulations

Armor Materials Definitions

Aventail: Flexible curtain of chainmail on a helmet, extending to cover the neck and shoulders.
Camail: Flexible curtain of mail or leather on a helm, extending to cover the neck
Flexible curtain of mail or leather on a helm, extending to cover the neck (also aventail).
Closed-Cell Foam: Stiff foam with closed cells, less dense than resilient foam (e.g., Ensolite).
Equivalent: Virtually identical to the specified material in effect or function, including impact resistance, impact distribution, and impact absorption characteristics, but not necessarily in physical dimensions.
Foam: Any open or closed-cell foam, including foam rubber, foam neoprene, polyurethane, etc.
Gauge: U.S. sheet metal standard. Note that 16-gauge is officially 1/16 inch (.0625 inch or about 1.6mm), but commercially available sheet is frequently rolled to .058 or even .055 inch much too thin for helms.
Gauntlet: An armored glove covering the back of the hand, fingers, and thumb and the points and back of the wrist.
Gorget: A piece of armor designed to cover the throat and neck.
Heavy Leather: Stiff, oak-tanned leather nominally 11/64 inch (.171875 inch or 4.4 mm) thick. This is referred to as 11 ounce leather.
Mail: Any fabric of small metal components either linked together (e.g., chain) or attached to a flexible backing (e.g., ring or scale).
Padding: Quilted or multi-layered cloth material, such as mattress pads, moving pads, carpet, felt, or equivalent.
Partial Gauntlet: (Also called a half-gauntlet or demi-gauntlet): An armored glove covering the back of the hand and at least the first knuckle of the thumb, as well as the points and back of the wrist.
Plate: Large components of rigid material.
Resilient Foam: Dense, plastic, closed-cell foam such as ethyl polymer.
Rigid Material:
  1. Steel of no less than 18 gauge, or aluminum of no less than 0.075 inch (1.9mm).
  2. Other metals of sufficient thickness to give similar rigidity to those listed above to include treated steel or aluminum.
  3. High-impact-resistant plastics such as ABS or polyethylene of sufficient thickness to give similar rigidity to those listed above.
  4. Heavy leather (as defined above) that has been hardened in hot wax, soaked in polyester resin (properly catalyzed), or treated in such a manner as to permanently harden the leather.
  5. Two layers of untreated heavy leather (as defined above).
  6. Other materials equivalent to those items listed above (Any armor of unusual construction or materials must meet the approval of the kingdom or Principality Earl Marshal or their designated deputy.)
Steel: Cold or hot rolled mild steel or equivalent ferrous material.

Equipment Inspection Guidelines

General Information

At each event, the marshal-in-charge must arrange for the inspection of ALL equipment to be used in combat. This in no way relieves the combatants themselves of their responsibility for following the equipment standards. Ultimately, each fighter is responsible for the condition and safety of his or her armor and weapons at all times. Including periods between rounds, individual battles, and day to day periods between battles at a multi-day event. However, the marshal’s inspection is intended to provide a second pair of experienced eyes and an outside, unbiased point of view. Equipment that was perfectly serviceable at the beginning of the previous event could have broken since, and even the most experienced fighter has forgotten some piece of armor.

As a marshal, you are NOT guaranteeing or certifying that anything is completely safe, and that its use is not without risk. The primary responsibility for the safety of weapons and armor remains with the fighter in all cases. You are inspecting to see whether the items comply with our published standards or not. If they do, they may be used in our combat activities — otherwise they may not. The purpose of our rules, standards and inspections is to reduce the chance of injury for those who participate. Even with those rules and standards, all combat activities can lead to injury. Properly carrying out your duties as an officer of the SMA and as a marshal will indemnify you in case the corporation or its officers are sued.

1 The inspection outlined below is merely an example, for purposes of illustration as described for regular SMA combat without combat archery, siege weapons, or hand thrown weapons.
  1. Armor inspection must be done with all the armor on the body of the fighter who is going to wear it.
  2. Weapon inspections, the primary test is safety. If you, as a marshal, do not believe that the weapon is safe, do not let it be used on the field.
    1. When in doubt, ask the prospective user if he or she would be willing to fight against the weapon. If not, it should not be used regardless of whether it meets all other requirements.
2 Sample Armor Inspection
  1. Leg Armor: Check that the front and sides of the knee are covered. Have the fighter flex their knees (either a deep knee bend or raise one knee at a time) and see that the knee remains covered. Check for signs that the equipment is faulty.
  2. Groin: ASK the fighter if they have remembered their cup or groin protection. DO NOT EVER attempt to check for it physically.
  3. Kidneys and Floating Ribs: Check for kidney/rib armor. Kidneys are located in the back, at the bottom of the ribs.
  4. Elbows: Check that the point and sides of each elbow are covered. Have the fighter flex their arm to validate that the elbow remains covered. Check for signs that the equipment is faulty.
  5. Hands and wrists: Check the gauntlet and/or basket hilt to see if they cover the required area (fingers, thumb and up to one inch of the forearm). Check for signs that the equipment is faulty.
  6. Neck and Head:
    1. Have the fighter assume a normal fighting stance. Check that the larynx and cervical vertebrae are covered. Have the fighter turn or tilt their head to see that the required protections remain covered.
    2. Check the faceplate and eye slots for greater than one-inch openings that would allow weapon penetration.
    3. Put your hand on the front of the helm and have the fighter push against it. Ensure that their face does not hit the faceplate beyond a gentle touch of the tip of the nose.
    4. Lift gently on the front of the faceplate to make sure that the chinstrap is secured. (DON’T jerk it upwards).
    5. Have the fighter to remove their head protection and inspect the interior for: broken welds, or internal projections that could cause injury. The presence and condition of padding or a suspension system to prevent contact with the wearer during combat.
  7. Shield: Check the rim for exposed sharp edges. (a 90-degree angle IS a sharp edge.) Check the rest of the shield for sharp edges, projections, broken or missing rivets, or other signs that it is faulty.
3 Sample Weapon Inspection:
  1. Swords:
    1. Check that they meet the minimum diameter of 1.25 inch or [31.8mm]).
    2. Check that the ends are taped and that there are no exposed cuts in the rattan.
    3. Check the quillons or basket hilts for sharp edges, broken or missing rivets, or other signs of risk due to damage.
    4. Check the preferred hand restraint system for cuts or weakened areas.
    5. Thrusting Tips: Check that they have the minimum cross section. Push on the end to verify the required amount of resilient give. Check that it the tip is constructed in such a manner that it cannot be forced more than .5 inch (12.7 mm) into a legal faceguard.
  2. Mass Weapons:
    1. Check the padding for proper amount of give.
    2. Check the preferred hand restraint system for cuts or weakened areas on singlehanded mass weapons.
    3. Consider the total mass of the weapon.
  3. Pole Weapons:
    1. Check the thrusting tip, if any, for the proper amount of give.
    2. Consider the total mass of the weapon.
    3. Check that the weapon meets the relevant length restrictions.

Armored Combat Authorizations

Armored Combat Authorizations

This is an EXAMPLE of an authorization is for an armored combat fighter. This procedure may be used as-is by any region, or it may be modified as needed until a standardized procedure is adopted. This authorization procedure requires two warranted authorized marshals, and an experienced authorized fighter be present. This outline is general and does not deal with the specifics of armor and weapons rules. Warranted authorized marshals will be trained in the specifics as they change.

1 If the fighter does not have a signed waiver prior to the authorization, the candidate and the authorizing marshal will properly complete a waiver.
2 Stage one of the Authorization, the two Marshals conducting the authorization must verify that the candidate is familiar with the Rules of the list and the conventions of combat specifically govern the region of residence.
3 The candidate must present themselves on the field in armor for inspection. The armor must be inspected on the body and must pass the current armor requirements. This inspection shall be complete and exacting, and any deficiencies must be permanently corrected before the person may authorize.
4 Both the experienced authorized fighter and the candidate shall be armed with sword and shield or the weapon in which the candidate seeks authorization.
5 Stage Two of the authorization bout, the prospective fighter and the authorized fighter shall fight at 1/2 to 3/4 speed and verbally acknowledge all blows landed.
  1. During this phase of the authorization, the two marshals should get an impression of the new fighter’s style, technique, ability to call blows, and their ability to defend themselves. If this portion of the authorization is not satisfactorily completed, the authorization procedure shall be stopped. The candidate shall be told of the problems observed and instructed as to how to correct the problems.
6 Stage Three of the authorization will have the combatants fight in a Pas-type combat, counting blows until one is defeated.
  1. During this phase, the two marshals should observe the new fighter’s control, reaction to blows, and ability to cope with pressure.
7 The two marshals and the authorized fighter shall confer to decide if the new fighter exhibits adequate performance in the minimum criteria for authorization listed below:
  1. Does the candidate know and apply the Rules of Honorable Combat?
  2. Does the candidate exhibit safe behavior on the field, for both self and others?
  3. How does the candidate react to pressure?
  4. Can the candidate defend him or herself?
  5. Is the authorizing fighter able to feel and judge blows, both those received and those thrown?
8 If the two marshals and authorized fighter agree that the candidate meets these requirements, the lead marshal will notify the fighter that they are now authorized. The fighter and marshal will properly complete any paperwork required by the Society.
  1. The fighter will send these properly completed forms to the Society official responsible for issuing authorization cards. Upon receipt of these properly completed forms, an authorization card will be issued. The fighter shall be issued a temporary card or keep a copy of the authorization form and waiver if he or she intends to fight prior to receiving the authorization card. The card should be received within a few weeks to a month. If the car is not received, the fighter should contact the authorization official and forward any information or paperwork required.

Marshal Information

Marshal Guidelines On The Field

The guidelines outlined in this section are here to help clarify and to provide examples of acceptable methods and procedures for SMA combat activities.

Preparing to marshal combat activities as marshal-in-charge is responsible for organizing the marshaling.

1. Things that need to be done prior to all combat activities:
  1. Check that the field can be safely fought upon, preferably before the site is reserved for the event. At minimum, check at the beginning of the day to see if there are holes, soft spots, rocks, etc. Move the fighting somewhere else if there are and they pose a serious risk that cannot be worked around.
  2. Arrange for equipment inspection.
  3. Arrange for marshals for all combat.
2. At minimum, there should be one marshal for each single combat. Two to four will be able to see more of the fight and monitor the boundaries more effectively. Any more than four will get in each other’s way and block the view from the sidelines without providing noticeably better marshaling. It will be relatively common at first for a marshal-in-charge to draft anyone he or she feels is competent to serve as a field marshal during an event.

Whether these individuals are warranted marshals will be a matter of regional choice. The advantage of being a warranted marshal is that the marshal an official of the Corporation, which gives you, the marshal, certain legal protection from lawsuits (if any) arising from your actions.

Hopefully, the Society and its officers will never face a lawsuit over fighting on the field. If volunteers are in short supply, point out to the fighters that they do not get to start until sufficient marshals are available.

Marshaling Single Combat

1 Safety:
  1. The field itself will always be a potential safety problem that will need to be continually monitored for holes, soft spots, and rocks that were previously undiscovered.
  2. As the fighters come onto the field, take a quick look to see if they have their full armor, especially elbow, neck, and hand armor. These are the likeliest to be removed between rounds and then forgotten.
  3. Once the fight has started, watch particularly for broken armor, lost tempers, injuries, and unauthorized people/pets/objects on the field.
  4. If you detect a problem, shout “Hold!” loudly and clearly. You may have to do this several times during an intense exchange of blows between combatants.
  5. If the first call of “Hold!” does not cause the fighters to stop, YELL LOUDER, Actively block their weapons with your staff until the fighting stops while yelling “Hold!”. Do not attempt to physically get between armored fighters while you yourself are unarmored. Adding another injury does not help.
2 Impartial Witness:
  1. Bear in mind that the various regional groups will develop somewhat differing traditions based on their past experiences as to how much marshals should intrude into a fight. However, blatant violations of the rules and safety concerns should always be brought up immediately if necessary and if a “hold” is called.
  2. You are expected to be an impartial witness to exactly what happens during a fight. Ideally, you should be able to describe the last 3–4 blows from your vantage point of the fight.
    1. Where they started
    2. Their angle of approach
    3. How they were blocked or where they landed.
    4. Do not be afraid to say, “I don’t know” if you were looking at one part of the fight when something allegedly happened in another part.
  3. Do not try to impose your view unless you see what appears to be major and repeated problems. Leave the blow counting to the participants (and the judges, if applicable) unless you see clear reason to intervene; usually, they have a much clearer perspective than the marshals do. Say only what you actually can see, try to avoid guessing.
  4. Avoid being compelled to offer an opinion of an exchange even if the fighters ask you what happened.
    1. If given no choice, try to do so tactfully. Using statements like “It looked to me like...”, “It appeared...”, or “to the crowd it looked like...” is preferable to an absolute assertion of what happened.
  5. To be able to answer any questions as accurately as possible, you need as clear a view as possible. This means being close to the fight. You need to strike a balance between getting closer to see better and staying back out of range of the blows. Keeping the combatants roughly centered between you and the other marshals for the fight.
3 Showmanship:
  1. Keep an eye on the audience, both for their entertainment and safety. We want SMA combat to be an exciting spectator sport, just as medieval tournaments were.
  2. Your responsibility is to keep things moving and avoid blocking the view from the sidelines except where unavoidable. This means fast pre-fight checks and announcements, a minimum of holds and discussions during the fight, and a strenuous effort to stay out of the way of the cheering crowd by continually moving. Remember they are there to watch the fighters, not you.

Procedures For The Authorization Of Marshals

General Requirements There are three near-equal priorities with being a Marshal in the SMA. Safety, impartial witness, and showmanship. Overemphasizing any one of these at the expense of the others will tend to make the fighting less enjoyable for everyone.

1 A marshal may be authorized after demonstrating the ability to oversee combat, judge a fighter’s authorization, and inspect weapons and armor.
2 Unless warranted or rostered by the Society Marshals an officer of the Society, a marshal may not be the marshal-in-charge of an event or sign the paperwork to authorize fighters.
3 Regions may have other types of Marshals other than Authorized Marshals as they see fit. These individuals may be warranted or rostered by the Society Marshal only after said marshal has undergone a Marshal’s Authorization. Until such time they shall not give final approval of the suitability of weapons, armor, or be involved in the authorization of combat participants.
4 Only the Society Marshal or designated Deputy Society Marshal(s) may perform a Marshal’s Authorization. They must witness the authorization and execute the appropriate paperwork to ensure that the authorization is registered.
5 At a minimum, a Marshal’s Authorization shall include the following: a. The candidate must have a good working knowledge and be willing to enforce the Standards of Safe Conduct, the Society Rules of Honorable Combat, and any additional regional rules or conventions. b. The candidate must have a good working knowledge of the Society minimum armor and weapons standards and any additional regional armor and weapons standards. c. The candidate must demonstrate the ability to conduct an inspection of armor and weapons for use in combat. d. The candidate must demonstrate the ability to conduct an inspection of combatants.
6 The candidate must demonstrate the ability to safely control SMA combat, whether this is single combat, team combat, general melee, or part of a war environment.
7 The term “Marshal” applies to the designated marshal of a group. This title of office is used regardless of whether the marshal is an authorized fighter or not.
8 All warranted or rostered marshals shall be paid members of the Society of the Middle Ages Inc.

Marshal Responsibilities, Chain Of Command And Reporting

Reporting Requirements You must file a report if:
You are the Society Marshal:
  1. On a quarterly basis, report to the President (and thence to the Board) on the state of the marshallate.
  2. Provide warrants for Regional and local Marshals as they are appointed.
  3. Maintain a roster of individual warrants throughout tthe Society.
  4. Maintain a roster of authorized fighters throughout the Society.
  5. Oversee disciplinary action that extends beyond the bounds of a single event.
  6. Answer correspondence from the Regional Marshals.
You are the Marshal of a Regional branch:
  1. Quarterly reporting to the Society Marshal regardingthe state of fighting in your Region. If there are subsidiary branches (e.g.,Shires, Towns, Castles), this includes summarizing the reports from them.
  2. Maintain a roster of individual warrants within yourRegion.
  3. Maintain a roster of authorized fighters within yourRegion.
  4. Oversee the disciplinary action of an event withinyour Region.
  5. Conduct Marshal authorizations for local branchesand forward to the Society Marshal for issuance of warrant.
  6. Answer correspondence from local branch marshals.
You are the Marshal of a local branch:
(e.g., Shire, Town, Castle)
  1. Regular reports on the state of fighting within yourbranch.
  2. Maintain a roster of Deputy Marshals within your localbranch.
  3. Maintain a roster of authorized fighters within yourlocal branch.
  4. Report on any incident observed, either during orrelated to combat, in which the Marshal in Charge was required to report.
  5. Answer correspondence from Marshal’s in Charge oflocal events.
You are the Marshal in Charge of an event:
  1. A brief yet complete report on the event, including.
    1. Names and ranks (if applicable) of fighters, and theorder in which they finished.
    2. Especially include any incidents in which:
      1. Someone was injured.
      2. A fighter or marshal had to be disciplined.
  2. Event reports shall go to the local branch Marshalor the Regional Marshal. (Event reports should not go to the Society Marshal)

Combat Injury Procedures

1 When an injury occurs on the field, it should always be remembered that the primary concern is assisting the injured party. Secondary to this objective is the safety of persons entering the field to help. Thirdly, but no less important is the well-being of anyone already on the field.
2 All injuries that require hospitalization or similar emergency care, including a period of unconsciousness, or may require future medical care need to be reported to the Marshalate within 24 hours of the incident.
Include all available details in the report.
3. In the event of an emergency, the marshals shall cooperate with any authorized persons responding to the emergency and keep the area clear of would-be spectators.
4. In the event of any suspected injury on the field, the marshal shall halt all fighting and determine the proper course of action.
This hold may be a local hold if the safety of the injured person can be maintained. The overall situation should be assessed as the injured party is tended to. Every effort shall be made to release as much of the field as possible so that combat may proceed.
5. If the injured person is conscious, they may be asked if they would like assistance. No conscious person will be forced to accept treatment without his or her consent. No non-combatant shall enter the combat area until summoned by a marshal.
6. A marshal shall call for assistance if they suspect that a participant is experiencing more than momentary distress.
It is an extremely serious matter to delay the application of first aid when it is needed, and marshals who ignore injuries may be subject to revocation of their authorization to supervise combat-related activities.
7. No one may remove an injured fighter from the field without the consent of the event marshal-in-charge or an appointed deputy.
8. Any immediate and significant problems associated with an injury on the field shall be reported to the Society Marshal.

Procedures For Grievances And Sanctions

Grievances and Disputes

Usually, the combatants are more than willing to correct any issue or breach of the rules pointed out by a marshal and this is always the desired solution. However, occasionally a marshal must act. In the unhappy event that yourself in this position, this is how you shall proceed. In order of preference:

Point out the violation (missing armor, grappling during combat, etc.) and ask the fighter to correct it.
  1. In the case of missing or inadequate armor, do not allow the combatant onto the field until it has been fixed.
  2. In the case of violation of the rules during combat, ask the combatant to leave the field, and do not allow combat to resume until he or she has cooled off. This particularly includes removing from the field anyone who has lost his or her temper.
  3. If you need support, call on (in order):
    1. Any other marshals who are present (especially the marshal-in-charge).
    2. The Local Marshal
    3. The Regional Marshal
    4. The local Seneschal
    5. The Regional Seneschal
    6. The Crown
  4. If the violation cannot be stopped, convince the marshal-in-charge and the local seneschal to end the event.
  5. In any case where voluntary correction is not made after the problem has been pointed out, a detailed written report shall be made to the Regional Marshal as soon as possible after the event.
  6. In cases where the fighter has made corrections voluntarily a report should be sent to the Regional Marshal if a pattern of problems, even minor ones from the same fighter is occurring.


In addition to removing an unsafe combatant from the field at the time, long-term sanctions are available. These will normally be applied by the marshal of the Region rather than by a local marshal. Sanctions which revoke or limit the ability of a fighter to participate for no longer than a single event (even if the event is a multi-day event or war) are not considered to be “administrative sanctions”.

Possible sanctions include:
  1. Revoking the authorization of the individual to fight with a particular weapon.
  2. Revoking the authorization of the individual to fight at all.
  3. Recommendation to the Crown to banish the individual from participation in events.
  4. Recommendation to the Board to banish the individual from the Society and its activities.
    1. If any of these long-term sanctions are in progress, the Society Marshal shall be informed.
    2. If authorization has been revoked, it is acceptable to inform the Regional Marshal of any neighboring regions to which the currently unauthorized fighter might travel. Once long-term sanctions have been applied, a report shall be made to the Society Marshal.
    3. An authorization from any Region may be suspended/revoked in another Region, should it prove necessary and appropriate. Such suspension/revocation means that the fighter may not fight anywhere in the Society until and unless the issue is resolved. Accordingly, the Regional Marshal issuing the suspension shall inform the Society Marshal and the Regional Marshals of the Society.
    4. Furthermore, if the fighter is subsequently re-authorized, the neighboring Regional Marshal shall again be notified.